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Drug Interaction Facts 2012 Ebook Free 12


People with fewer than five drug convictions are classified as first-time offenders. These people, regardless of their race, can receive a light sentence and a deferred adjudication or probation. First-time offenders, or first-time offenders of one type of drug offense, are almost never prosecuted for drug offenses again, whereas those with multiple drug convictions are prosecuted and receive additional penalties (e.g., longer prison terms).




drug interaction facts 2012 ebook free 12



Punishments for drug offenses also vary by race. Whites were more likely than Blacks to receive deferred adjudications or probation for a drug offense, and they were more likely to be incarcerated, although the disparity is diminishing. 69 In 2010, Whites received an average of 5.7 years of imprisonment, compared to Blacks who received 3.7 years. 70 These data are consistent with national data showing that Black and Hispanic drug offenders are incarcerated at higher rates than Whites. 71


In 2010, 84% of incarcerated drug offenders were people of color. 72 The rate at which Whites were incarcerated on drug charges rose from 27% in 2003 to 34% in 2008. 73 Although Whites and Blacks have similar rates of drug use, Whites were two-and-a-half times more likely than Blacks to be sentenced for a drug offense in 2009. 74


In an attempt to increase the rate of compliance with arrests in New York, the legislature required the police to promulgate arrest policies based on the race of the offender. 75 The Stop-and-Identify policies were instituted as a result of the Stop-and-Frisk program. 76 Under this program, the police were required to stop people on suspicion of drug possession and question them in order to determine whether there was sufficient evidence to arrest them. Because the police are required to have a reasonable suspicion that a person is engaged in criminal activity in order to stop the person, they were able to stop Black and Hispanic subjects at rates greater than their representation in the general population. 77 However, arrest rates for Black and Hispanic men were lower than their representation in the general population. 78


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