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This report provides information regarding the update that was done to the Statistics Canada Index of Remoteness. The Index of Remoteness was first compiled using the 2011 census of geographies and populations followed by an update in August 2018 with the 2016 census of geographies and populations. A report explaining the motivation and methodology for the index was published on May 9th, 2017 (Alasia et al., 2017). With the release of 2021 census geographies and populations, Statistics Canada updated the Index of Remoteness.
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The two primary geographic units of analysis of the Index of Remoteness are the Census Subdivision (CSD) and Population Centre (PopCtr) geographical units. Table 1 shows the number of new and disappearing CSDs and PopCtrs between 2016 and 2021.
The CAA operating cost of a new 2021 mid-sized vehicleNote being driven 20,000 km per year was estimated to be 0.1782 dollars per kilometer. The methods used to update the cost of driving took into account the updated operating costs provided by CAA and price variations reflected in selected Consumer Price Index (CPI) components. This resulted in an estimated cost of 0.18 dollars. Hence, 18.00 cents per kilometre is what was used to calculate the CSD-PopCtr travel cost matrix for the CSDs accessible by road or ferry.
Of the total 5,161 CSDs existing in 2021, a Index of Remoteness value was calculated for 5,112 of them.Note The 2021 Index of Remoteness had a higher mean (0.357 vs. 0.349) and higher median (0.355 vs. 0.339) than the 2016 Index of Remoteness results. The frequency distribution of the 2021 index values is shown in Figure 3. The 466 CSDs in the 0.10 to 0.15 range with roughly half of all CSDs falling between 0.20 and 0.45 follows a similar pattern to the 2016 Index of Remoteness
As in 2016, the least remote CSD in 2021 according to the index is Toronto, whose index value is zero. Similarly, as in 2016, the most remote CSD is Grise Fiord with the maximum value of one. Figure 4 shows the distribution of the 2021 index values from smallest to largest (or Toronto to Grise Fiord). The x-axis of the figure shows the cumulative share rank of CSDs. The distribution is somewhat similar to the 2016 version. In 2021 the cumulative distribution rises logarithmically between 0 and approximately 0.2 (on x-axis) and then linearly until 0.75, at which point values rise at an increasing rate with some breaks near the top of the index. Only 190 CSDs, or 3.7%, have an Index of Remoteness value larger than 0.7. In 2016, the equivalent percentage was 4.3%.
A key factor influencing the change in agglomeration level over time for a given community is the appearance and disappearance of population centres.Note There was a total of 1,026 PopCtrs in 2021. Of these, 50 were new since 2016. The 2021 Census also saw the removal of 29 PopCtrs from the geographic frame as they no longer satisfied the definitional critieria of a PopCtr.Note The new and disappearing PopCtrs are shown in Figure 7.
This document simply highlights trends and the overall change between the 2016 and 2021 Indices of Remoteness and does not delve into the many potential factors that can impact the Index of Remoteness.
An additional 21 out of 67 communities that are unconnected and are accessible by air and driving/seasonal ferry/seasonal road had their flight costs imputed based on the data for the 57 non-connected communities only accessible by air that had prices available online.
In 2016 and 2011 versions, CSDs connected to the main road/ferry network and having at least one PopCtr within 300 km in linear distance were treated as connected. If a connected CSD did not have a PopCtr within 300km then it was connected to the closest population centre in linear distance.
This could also arise from methodological change in 2021 of estimating ferry cost for unconnected CSDs simply by multiplying the CAA cost per kilometer of 18 cents by the ferry route distance, rather than using actual ferry ticket prices.
Additionally, CBP has a number of Informed Compliance Publications (ICPs) in the "What Every Member of the Trade Community Should Know About: ..." series. As of the date of this posting, the subjects listed are available for reading or downloading.
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MSRP excludes freight charges, tax, title, and license fees. Freight charges and actual dealer prices may vary. Vehicles displayed may contain optional equipment at additional cost. Accessory items shown may vary according to model and illustration.